Alamut Castle is considered a fortified mountain fortress in the Alamut region of present-day Qazvin Province in Iran, which in the Middle Ages served as the central base of the Nizari Ismaili.
Alamut state or also known as Nizari state sect. Formed when the Nizarists split in Ismailism and formed their own branch of Shia Islam.
The state was founded by Hassan-I Sabbah (1050 – 1124 AD) who also created a fidā’i military group commonly known as Batiniyya, Ta’limiyya, Isma’iliyya, Nizariyya, or in a document Fatimid by Caliph al-Amir circa 1120 AD, Hashshashin (meaning one who smokes/uses hashish), from which some scholars suggest that the word “assassin” derives.
The fidā’I group carried out espionage missions and assassinated their main enemies as well as political figures in public, including three kings, a ruler of Jerusalem, and several other leaders. Islam, Christianity. And the assassinations were successful.
Alamut Castle was first built around AD 865 by Wahsūdān ibn Marzubān, a Justanid ruler of Daylam. According to legend, Marzubān chose the site after witnessing an eagle perched on a high rock during a hunting trip which he named Aluh āmū [kh] t, possibly meaning “Teaching” of the eagle” or the “Nest of Punishment”. This place was chosen because it is considered as the bravery and pride of the eagle.
Hassan-I Sabbah reached the walls of Alamut and captured the castle in 1090 AD, where he embarked on a series of construction works by strengthening the existing walls, building a number of chambers and developed a series of terraces along the surrounding valley for cultivation. to quickly supply the castle if threatened by siege.
Hassan is also credited with the construction of the Alamut library, a famous center of scientific, religious and astronomical research that attracted scholars and scientists from all over the Muslim world, along with his theories. other religions.
The process of formation and development.
With a strong foothold in the area now, Hassan expanded his influence by capturing more strongholds and building new fortresses at strategic points. In less than two years after capturing Alamut, Hassan and his followers captured several towns across Quhistan that would form the basis of an independent Nizari state centered on Alamut.
In the mid-13th century, the Mongol Empire’s plans to expand into western Asia required the conquest of the Muslim States. At this time, the Nizari State was one of the barriers that now includes more than fifty strongholds and was a significant obstacle to the Mongol advance.
After several defeats, Rukn al-Din Khurshah, the 27th Isma’ili Imam, ordered all the Nizari castles of the Rusbar valley to surrender, evacuate, and dismantle their fortresses. All of the castles (about forty) later surrendered, except for Alamut who remained adamant.
The Mongols finally reached Alamut in 1256 AD and besieged the castle. To obey the Imam, the castle’s garrison surrendered to the invading Mongols, who dismantled it and destroyed its famous library treasure.
Nizari Ismaili recaptured and held Alamut in 1275 AD, but the Mongols recaptured the castle in 1282 AD, marking the end of Nizari Ismaili’s rule in the region.